Ingredients and herb in Thai cookery school

Chilli (Phrik)

Several different types of the chilli are used in Thai cooking. As a general rule, the smaller the chilli, the hotter it is. The hottest are the tiny red or green Phrik Chi Fa. Dried chillies, Phrik Khi Nu Haeng, and ground chilli poder, Phrik Khi Nu Pon, are also used.

Galangal (Kah)

Galanga, called¬†kah¬†in Thai and known variously as “galangal” and “laos root,” is an immensely pungent and fiery rhizome related to the common ginger but with a personality distinctly its own.

Ginger (Khing)

In addition to galanga, two other varieties of ginger are used in Thai cooking, the familiar one Khing and another Krachi which has a milder flavour.

Lemon grass (Takhrai)

This tall, grass-like plant, has small, bulbous roots and a lemony flavour and aroma. The bud and base leaves are chopped and pounded for many dishes as well as for a refreshing herbal tea.

Kaffir lime (Makrut)

Both the fruit and leaves of this shrub, lend a distinctive taste to many Thai foods, especially curry paste. There is no real substitute though.

Lime (Manao)

Used principally as a garnish for fish and main dishes, lime is also freshly sqeezed and mixed with water and sugar syrup as a beverage.

Turmeric ( Kha Min)

Another member of the ginger family, Turmeric provides a bright yellow colour to some Thai curries.

Coriander (Phak Chi)

Coriander (ciliantro) is essential to many Thai dishes. Not only are the leaves used but also the stems, roots and seeds, all of which impart different flavours.

Garlic (Krathiam)

Thai garlic is smaller and sweeter than the Western variety. It is used both fresh and pickled in a large number of classic dishes.

Peppercorn (Phrik Thai)

Used fresh (green), dried (Black) and ground (black) to add a peppery flavour to many dishes.

Mint (Bai Saranae)

Fresh leaves are used as a vegetable, for flavoring and as a garnish to a number of dishes.

Onions (Hom Yai)

In addition to the large, bulbous common variety:
– Shallot (Hom Daeng) Small, zesty, sweet and aromatic. An essential ingredient in many Thai dishes
– Spring Onions (Ton Hom) Used as vegetables and for garnishing many dishes.

Tamarind (Makham)

The pulp of the pod of the tamarind tree adds a sour taste to numerous meat and fish dishes (no to be confused with sweet tamarind).

Sweet Basil ( Bai Horapha)

The most commonly used and has a slight aniseed flavour and a reddish purple colour.

Holy Basil (Bai Khaprao)

A spicier flavour only released when cooked.

Lemon Basil (Bai Maengluk)

Milder and often sprinkled over soup and salads.

Palm Sugar (Nam Tan Pip)

Palm Sugar is derived from the fruit of the Palmyra or sugar palm. After collecting the sap from its large rough trunks, the sap is boiled until the liquid has evaporated. The sugar that remains is a light golden-brown paste with a distinctive flavor and fragrance and comes in the form of dry cubes or thick paste.

Fish sauce (Nam Pla)

Made from fermented fish mixed with salt. It is rich in protein and vitamin B and its widespread. The best quality sources are dark in color, tasting more of fish and have a pungent fishy aroma. It comes in bottles and plastic jugs. Fish sauce is served with nearly every meal and is also used in almost every dish of Thai food. It can be substitute with Light Soy Sauce or Salt.

Oyster sauce (Nam Man Hoy)

This is made from concentrated oysters and their brine cooked with salt and soy sauce. It is thick, brown, rich and salty. It is used in stir-fries. It can be substituted with Mushroom Sauce.

Shrimp Paste (Kapi)

A strong-smelling pungent paste made from dried shrimp and salt. Rich in vitamin B,it is added to many curry pastes and can be substituted with Anchovy or Soybean paste.